Saturday, July 31, 2010

Some More TeleTV Boards

These are a few more concepts created at The Ink Tank for TeleTV.

These were thought up and drawn by the inimitable Santiago Cohen.

These are meant to be simple, 5 second, 'bumps'.

There's something about these boards (the above in particular) which makes me think of Folon's TV ID from the late 70s.

Folon's an illustrator who's fallen out of favor.  I wonder how many American animators have even heard of him.

This would have been mixed media.  Simple.  Fun.

And sunset.

Friday, July 30, 2010

Vive L'animation!

I may have been to me, but I've never been to Paris and, unfortunately not Annecy.

A top-tier animation festival (and should be considered along with Ottawa and a few others a top tier film festival, in general), Annecy celebrated it's 50th Anniversary this year. In commemoration, they've released a 5 DVD set containing 40 films highlighting the half century of international animation.

The DVDs are Region 0, PAL.  Americans might not be able to watch them on their BluRay decks but any computer should have no problem.  BUY HERE!

And, being French, the booklet and menus are in French.  The overwhelming majority of the films are non-verbal, some (like "Frank Film") are in English with French subtitles, others (like "Bob's Birthday") are strictly  en français and we just have to lump it.

Many of these films aren't easily screened in any language: Robert Mitchell and Dale Case's "Further Adventures of Uncle Sam" (a iconic slice of 1970s zeitgeist), Alison de Vere's "Mr. Pascal", Jean-François  Laguionie "La Demoiselle et le Violoncelliste", and many others.

Also included are several popular films from this century -Chris Landreth's "Ryan", Jeremy Clapin's "Skhizein" and Michael Dudok de Wit's elegant "Father and Daughter".

These are 40 films which represent the best of international animation for the last 50 years, even with the exclusion of many American greats, it's a showing which make you proud to work in the same field as these greats.

(On a practical note, this ships from France.  I ordered on a Monday and received the package Thursday, standard delivery.  No problems.)

Thursday, July 29, 2010

Animation Notes 2/8/90 - ALWAYS WATCH THE EYES

Some more notes from Tissa David

Eyes are 3 dimentional.

Don't move head and eye at the same time.

When you watch a character you always watch the eyes.

Blink: When action is off screen you can have characters on the screen blink intermittently will add to film and character (some slowly blinks an older character.  faster for younger)

Long holds, character can breathe.  Only when you have plenty of time and it should be slow, not panting.

Inhaling and exhaling must be at least 2 seconds.

Secondary character should never compete with the main character.

When repeating characters walking into distance they have to diminish in size enough to relate to sharp perspective.  Otherwise the characters will give a feeling of growing larger.

2 characters walking:
Older: slow long step
Child: short quick steps twice as fast

Exaggerate differences.  You have to exaggerate in animation twice as much to show your action twice as fast.  And in doing this you will learn to correct walking

Two legs should meet in body.  Legs should always be the same length.
You have to feel the spine of body.

Sober: balance
Drunk: off balance

 Stairs: requires muscle effort.

A child will have more effort and will take twice as long because he will have to put both feet on steps before proceeding to next.

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

What's Everybody Doing... in 1980

Not too long ago Howard Beckerman was the man magazines (O.K. "magazines" -maybe it was a while ago) would call on to write about animation.  He was a regular contributor to Millimeter and Backstage and probably a dozen others.

Here's a little run down he did in 1980 for "Filmmakers: Film and Video Monthly".

By Howard Beckerman

Animation doesn't belong to any one person or organization; it's the province of all or any who wish to take the plunge.  A look at the humming activity across the country proves that this is the case.  Studios have popped up everywhere using all manner of techniques to develop their ideas.  And a surge of new developments in the technology of animation-related equipment has followed in the wake of the demand for fantasy filming.  There are now computers that create three-dimensional images or add colors to create cartoon shapes and camera mechanisms that can be programmed to spin, turn, and twist in any direction on command.
Interest in animation has grown so strong that hardly a film school in the country doesn't offer some animation training.  Still, there is no guarantee of jobs for all the bright students who are turned onto the medium.
The  following survey demonstrates that if you're trying to make it in animation, the small, individually owned studio is the way to go.  This sampling of what's doing in the world of animation, big studio, or one-person shop, shows the feverish activity in what we like to call "the industry."
 Click to enlarge any image

Above: paragraphs on ART/WIPE in Santa Barbara; Astoria Motion Picture and Television Center Foundation; Walt Disney Productions; Action Productions, Inc. (John Gati's stop motion company); Gabor Csupo; Anivision, LTD in Pittsburgh run by Rick Catizone.

Above: Boyington Film Productions, San Francisco; Bakshi Productions, Inc. (just finished "American Pop"); Darino Films; Howard Beckerman Studio (just moved to 45 W. 45th Street); Hanna and Barbera Productions, Inc.

Above: Diaz de Villegas Studios -Puerto Rico's only animation company; The Cartoon Kitchen (who recently completed animation for Carl Sagan's PBS show "The Cosmos"); Eight Frame Camera Service -George Davis' New York based Oxberry; Harold Friedman Consortium was sort of like the Acme Filmworks of the early 80s;  Fluid Art which was Kelly Hart's company specializing in hot wax on glass animation.

Above: Image Associates in Mishawaka, Indiana; Bill Helvey Productions, Columbia, MO; Hellman Design Associates in Waterloo, Iowa; Phil Kimmelman and Associates "hopping" with commercial work including a series of medical spots for children entitled "Dr. Henry" designed by Roland Wilson; Anthony T. Isoldi, Staten Island "an animator who is literally boxed in as the creator promos and instructional films for commercial packaging firms.

Above: The Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art, Inc.; Candy Kugel, just completed "Audition" "she even sings on the track"; Peg McClure Moody in Milpitas, CA.  "Moudy is excited about the prospect of applying animation to diverse topics like science fictions, humor and social commentary."; Ovation Films, Howard Basis is actively turning out inserts for live commercials; Luminous Animated Films, Richard Sanca produces a lot of work for Sesame Street; Nelvana Limited working on $5.4 million feature "Drats" (this would become "Rock and Rule")

Above: The Optical House doing special effects for Broadway and features; Perpetual Motion Pictures; Neworld Animation, South Blue Hill, Maine.  Offspring of Noel Paul Stookey of Peter, Paul and Mary -started as recording studio and evolved; Mary Ann Michna, Jersey City, NJ.; Moon Studios in Philadelphia.

I've done some limited searching for Peter Craigie and Moon Studios and come up blank.  His address, 2226 Frankford Avenue is right down the street from my family's Fishtown stomping grounds and not far in the other direction from where my father lived for many years.  No luck so far.

Above: Yellow Ball Workshop, Lexington, MA; Ruby Spears; Zander's Animation Parlour hour-long "Gnomes" in production (in addition to Perpetual Motion's "Berenstein Bears" there seems to have been an uptick in New York); Hilda Terry -New York based newspaper cartoonist turned animator, creating animation for baseball scoreboards (one of the dream jobs).

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Mad Men -Jaffee and Aragones on Sundance

The pieces we did for Sundance on Al Jaffee and Sergio Aragones are now on line.

After running the last few of our "Naked Campaign" film on air, Gail Levin struck up a good relationship with Sundance.

They had these interviews with the two great cartoonists and weren't sure what to do with it. They (rightly) loved the content, but the video and audio quality was a little rocky.

They suggested we treat them in a similar to our "Naked Campaign" pieces, having Steve Brodner play a sort of foil -commenting and illustrating -to their interviews.

It's kind of a strange combination, but it works and its oddly illuminating. Brodner works in a very different field from Aragones and Jaffee, but he's clearly learned a lot from them.

Just as different branches of film can positively inform animator's work, the same is true for illustration.

We're pretty happy with the results of the pieces.

Fabrizio Fante was the producer at Sundance. He was a pleasure to work with.

The usual Naked Campaign/Need to Know credits: Gail Levin, Steve Brodner, Ben Shapiro, Christina Capozzi-Riley, Richard O'Connor. Elliot Cowan did some of the animation on these. The Aragones talking. Jonny A did some of the Jaffee animation.

Monday, July 26, 2010

Next Animator - Election Time

The masthead is destroyed on this union newsletter, but it's clearly from late October/early November 1944 since is gives endorsements in the Presidential Election.

No surprise FDR is endorsed.

Odd there's been no mention of "Hellbent for Election" in the Animator. Guess it was a non-union production.

Back page is a letter urging members to vote and giving a history of labor issues.

Sunday, July 25, 2010

Look That Up In...

This is pretty ancient.

Like 1970s ancient.

Apart from the live action guy and the cruddy video quality -I think it holds up pretty well and have always liked it.

It was produced at The Ink Tank. From the looks of it, Ed Smith was the animator, but it's really a marvel of art production.

Saturday, July 24, 2010

Avatar, Eat Your 3D Heart Out

Unlike seemingly the rest of America, I'm not at Comicon.

I will, however, bring you the latest in comics technology: Rocky and Bullwinkle in 3D!

O. K.  So maybe it's not the latest.  But 1987 is pretty recent, right?

You'll need these.

This was published by Blackthorne Publishing.

There are no artists credits except "Cover color by Jay Oliver" and "3D effects by Nancy and Bob Fritsch".

The inside front and back cover is a boilerplate interview with June Foray.

The backpage is an ad for the Flintstones 3D comic.  Also full page ads for "The Official How To Draw Robotech" and "Gumby 3D".

These few pages should be more than enough for anybody.

Friday, July 23, 2010


Here's a little under camera thing we did.

We'll probably have to re-do it with lighting and a better camera.

Buttons from Asterisk Animation on Vimeo.

Point and shoot digital camera aren't so hot for doing tabletop photography.

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Animator #91 - The Empire Strikes Back

Screen Cartoonists' Local 852 "Animator" for the week of 10/23/43


DISNEY: XMAS AND NEW YEARS - Judge Henry M. Willis rendered a decision reversing the award of arbitrator Spencer Pollard. In doing so, the Judge substituted his interpretation of our contract for the interpretation made by the arbitrator. Our counsel advises us that Judge Willis erred because it is the arbitrator and not a Judge whose decision is final, under the terms of our contract. The question of how far the courts can go in interfering with arbitration awards is extremely important because thousands of awards are handed down by arbitrators under labor contracts; if any judge may ignore such decisions and throw them out of the window for any or no reason, such contracts will be jeopardized. Therefore, the Guild is appealing the decision to the Supreme Court firm in the belief that this High Court will disagree with the action of the lower court judge.

The Company has been offering long term contracts to a number of individuals at the studio. Having examined several of these documents we urge that all of you being offered these contracts check with your office first, not for the Guild's sake but for your own. It is our belief that you should at least have the benefit of some legal advise before you sign.

Two matters in checking have been satisfactorily solved with retroactive checks for five and three months being received by the members.

Father Vaughn of Loyola is being asked to act as arbitrator on the matter pending in the Story Dept.

We are still awaiting a decision from the War Labor Board on the contract, it should be down within the next few days.

As there is no stirring news at any of the other studios at the moment, we are skipping the usual report on each of them.


Frank Smith in charge of production at Lantz... Rudolph Ziegler directing at Wolffs ...Ray Patin on leave of absences for a needed rest... Lillian Goldberg leaves Warners for Plastic ...recent changes at Warners -Cornett Wood in Background, Bob MacKimson unit director -Mike Sasanoff in Story Dept.  -Betty Leembrugger in Steve's room after a long absence, -Izzy Ellis to Clampett unit -new inbetweener Lloyd Turner.

Retta Beck newest redhead at MGM

In a hot return match at the Lantz Studio, the powerful Disney Ping Pong  Quintet was overwhelmed by an inspired Lantz Five who sought revenge for the slight defeat announced in the last issue of the Animator.  The score was unprintable.

"The Woodpecker Bolling Team" at Lantz is near the top in the League, their series standing is 14-10.

Wednesday, July 21, 2010


A little while we posted a board of a project produced in the 90s for TeleTV.

This is a concept board by Suzan Pitt.

We pitched several ideas at The Ink Tank, opening the assignment to the whole studio.

This was the one I most wanted to see produced.

I had never seen a storyboard like this. 

What I find most appealing is that I wouldn't know how to make a film out of this board, but I know that it's a film I would like to see.

I guess that's an experience for another time.

Tuesday, July 20, 2010

How to Animate - Tissa David Lecture Notes 2/1/90

You'll need to click the images to get the most out of these notes from Tissa David's 2/1/90 lecture.

Sparkle always has a center.

Timing: could be slow in, fast out.

Boiling bubbles - disappearing

Balloon popping.  Remaining balloons move away.

Snow cycles.

Select path.  Animate extremes in various sizes and then inbetween.


Should be image of reality.  When you animate should be more than reality.

Limited animation.

Get the action and hold.... eetc/

When you see the characters without sound and the characters just move without personality it is bad animation.  Characters should move with personality and each should be not dependent on sound and voice for character.

Walking in sand or snow.  The body requires strenuous action to pull leg out and then foot sinking in arms always balancing the strain (hands shouldn't be in pocket) Body should be doing balancing act.

(Left foot forward right shoulder out)

When you do action part of your body will carry the action.  For instance dancing the main action is in your pelvis.

Think out your actions.  Plan moves.

Girl walking to door reaching for door, opening door.  This will give you a better sense of timing.


Hard ground.  When the ground is hard the knee bends.

If you must attempt to animate do straight ahead with many trials and error.

Another different and impossible action is when water drops and rings animate out.  Don't try rings hitting other rings and animating.

Keep it simple.  Don't have it hit.

Tight rope (then a quick sketch)

Monday, July 19, 2010

Obama Where Art Thou?

Here's our piece for Friday's "Need to Know."

Watch the full episode. See more Need To Know.

I actually think we could've been a little harder.

Sunday, July 18, 2010

Animator #90 - Politics


STATE OF THE UNION: Discovering fro one of the painters at Disneys that while a great many people read the Animator everybody reads the Inbetweens, we are going to see how the above caption will effect things.

DISNEYS: Suit has been filed in the Superior Court for the enforcement of the arbiter's award granting us two days pay for Xmas and New Years.  It should come up for hearing early this month.

As was reported to you, the hearings before the War Labor Board on our negotiations have been concluded.  The Company submitted a post hearing brief which we haven't examined yet.  As soon as we get a copy we will inform you of its contents.

We have asked for arbitration of one case in the Story Dept.  Several other matters have been settled.  At the time there are two new cases in Checking.

MGM: An all day off the record meeting was held for the purpose of seeing whether or not there is a chance of our getting together with the Company on the new contract.  We are awaiting the Company's counter proposal which should be forthcoming early next week.  If no agreement is reached this matter will go to the WLB so that it may be concluded.

SCREEN GEMS: On negotiations - we are awaiting the outcome of the MGM situation.

Four cases are pending which we believe will be cleared up very quickly.

WARNER BROS: (Schlesingers) The case of payment for Xmas and New Years was forwarded by the Conciliation Dept. here to the War Labor Board in Washington.  (Schlsinger's attorney stated they are awaiting the outcome of the elections, he said if Dewey wins they will not  be faced with WLB orders and will not have to pay).

LANTZ: We have been trying to reach agreement with his attorney to hold arbitration on the Xmas and New Years case.

PALS: All pending disputes with the Pal Studio have been ironed out.  Pals have agreed to pay all employees for last Xmas and New Years and agreed to two retroactive adjustments on classifications.  We on our side have dropped several of our claims.

PLASTIC: We have not had a chance to continue negotiations since our first two meetings.

BUNINS: There are three matters pending here.

Make sure click the image to see the call for help on a mural for the Hollywood U. S. O.


Included here is notice of a Ping Pong team's defeat of Lantz and a challenge to all comers.

KARL VAN LEUVEN flees Disney to form a partnership with C. M. Deasy, architect.  The new firm is labeled DEASY AND VAN LEUVEN. 

Monday, October 2, the LA Times reported Walt Disney's contribution of $500 to Congressman Norris Poulson's reelection campaign.  Poulson voted against the Federal Ballot for Soldiers; wrong on Price Roll back; wrong on Home Owners Loan Corp; wrong on Crop Insurance; wrong on the Ruml Plan; against a $25,000 ceiling; for the Smith-Connally Bill.  He did vote against the Poll Tax and for funds for subsidies.  All labor and liberal forces in his district are backing Ned Healy.

The sponsors for Dewey list contained the names of Leon Schlesinger, Walter Lantz, Messrs. Disney as well as Gunther Lessing.

Saturday, July 17, 2010

Annecy 1975

Here's a pretty detailed recap of Annecy 1975.  The article calls it "10th International Cartoon Film Festival".  I don't know how that math works for a biennial festival that began in 1960.  Must be an ASIFA thing.


It's written by Nino Weinstock for Graphis.

No spectacular innovations, some little masterpieces in every technique, numerous new names, few famous ones -that sums up briefly the tenth meeting of the cartoon film people in Annecy.  The programme accompanying the festival proper, the provision of information and the opportunity for personal contacts seem to be gaining importance.  The influence of the festival is making itself felt, for two of the best films were actually made in Annecy: "Illusions" by Nicole Dufour and "Night Bird" by Bernard Palacios.  Both tell a poetic story with the simplest of means, using cut-out figures on large painted backgrounds.  The rest of the French contribution was also convincing.  "The Actor", "The Footprint", "Landscape" and "One" are included in our illustrations.  Robert Lapoujade was represented by "A Comedian without Paradox", in which subtly operated puppets from Diderot's "Paradoxe du Comedien" say their pieces, and Peter Foldes, together with Paul and Gaetan Brizzi, by an excerpt from "Daphnis and Chloe" in which Foldes' much-admired drawings move and change against a colored background.

France also claimed the Grand Prix with "The Step" by Piotr Kamler.  The was recognition for an oeuvre devoted to research and experiment  and including many films which have not been fully understood.


Two types of productions stand out at Annecy: poetic films that use technical expedients to tell their story, and films in which the story is used to display technical skill.  Will Vinton's first film "Closed Mondays", proves that the two can also be rolled into one.  A first production that has won several awards, a couple of successful films made in an Annecy living room: the animated film would seem to offer a chance to everybody.  It is to be hoped, at any rate, that in future many artists will be attracted to this interesting medium.  Editor.

1-3.  Lenica's films are always a delight for the graphically trained eye.  He presents his mysterious stories with the simplest of means.  This time, in "Landscape", he deals with the monsters begotten by the sleep of reason, of which Goya spoke.

4. "A Poet's Life".  A piece of filmed literature from Japan, telling of the development of a poet who is also the hope of an oppressed working class.

5-6. "Smile 1 and 2", a two-part Swiss film mad with coloured sand.  In the first part peace is the issue, in the second part Oedipus decides to put an end to his complex.

7-10.  "The Footprint" is a bitter little story by the artist Cardon who has worked for "France Soir", "Humanite", "Charlie Hebdo" and "Politique Hebdo".  A strange prosthesis, the purpose of which is unclear, is strapped round the heads and chest of the children after birth.  Only when it is removed is the mystery solved: it provides space for the footprint of the child's lord and master.  The impact of this film is heightened by the forceful style of the drawing.

11-13.  In "The Actor" (Jean-Francois Laguionie. Production: Les Studios du Languedoc, Clapiers) a young actor, standing in front of the mirror, changes into an old man, but resumes his youthful appearance after the performance.  But what is he, what was he?  The mirror has a reality of its own.

14-21. "Night Bird".  (Bernard Palacios. Production: Pink Splash Prod., Maison-Alfort)  A civil servant drives home from the office every evening.  Almost by chance he discovers a woman with wings and a bird's head by the roadside one evening and drives her to a mysterious door.  A glimpse of paradise is allowed to him, the he goes back to his daily round.

The jury considered the best complete programme to be that from the United States. Apart from the films illustrated here -"This is not a Museum", "The Cloudmaker", "WOW" and "Closed Mondays" -Gene Deitch showed his film version of Tomi Ungerer's "The Beast of Monsieur Racine" and Bob Kurtz an advertising TV spot for Levi's jeans in the style of the great painter of the West, Frederick Remington.

From Britain came "Bigger is Better", "Butterfly Ball" and "Amateurs Night".  "Cafe Bar" is by Alison de Vere, who once drew for Halas and Batchelor and supervised the settings for "The Yellow Submarine".  Her film has all the ingredients of the successful animated film: an imaginative story, surprising developments and ideas, colours, forms and gags.  The action take place on a lady's hat in a cafe.  "The Miracles of Flight" by Terry Gilliam is a plastic picture book.  It is all about the invention of a flying machine, but as the successful flight never comes off in the film, it has to be limited to the ceremonies taking place in the airport.

There were not many highlights from the Eastern Bloc, which used to hold centre stage a few years ago.  The old master Jiri Brdecka had a new opus to show: "The  Miner's Rose." His films are always among the best, as are those of Ion Popesco-Gopo, who this time presented "Intermezzo for an Eternal Love", a charming piece in which the earth adorns itself with man's productions.  There is admittedly a painful middle passage in which the decorations consists of ruins, fumes and smoking chimneys, but there are finally replaced by flowers, vines and butterflies.  "In the Grass" by the Pole Jerzy Kalina is made up  of movement, cut-out figures and materials. Fabulous creatures of the technical age, half birds, half aeroplanes,  demonstrate the struggle for survival in nature.  Branko Ranitovic wih his "Chameleon" reminds us of the great days of the animated film from Zagreb.  In a ten-minute speech before the UN he unmasks the inconstancy of the political demagogue.  Hungary contributed "Ca ira -Battle Song of the French Revolution" by Gyorgy Kovasznai.  The principal figures of the French Revolution are conjured up in bold brush-strokes to the stirring notes of the song.

Among other productions that caught the attention were an appealing film painted in lustrous colours by Caroline Leaf, "The Marriage of the Owl"; "Smile 1 and 2", done in coloured sand by the Swiss Ernest and Gisele Ansorge; the study "Perspectives" by their countryman Georges Schwizgebel; and Borislav Saktinac's amusing tale of the cat that conjures with mice, "We Are a Crowd."

The members of the jury were Mustapha Alassane, Nigeria; the Russian critic Sergei Assenin; Miroslaw Kijowicz of Poland; the grand old man of animated film, Len Lye; Kati Macskassy, daughter of the Hungarian film pioneer; Farshid Mesghali of Tehran; Jimmy Murakami; the acoustic specialist Pierre Schaeffer; Zdenek Smetana of Prague and the Italian critic Piero Zanotto.


22-27. This is Not a Museum (John E. Haugse.  John E. Haugse, Santa Barbara). A man makes the acquaintance  of modern art in an unconventional museum.  The film is beautifully painted, in some cases directly on the film strip.  The sculpture in fig. 25 is borrowed from Magritte.

28-30. The Cloudmaker (Peter van Deusen.  Churchill Films, Los Angeles).  An allegory about our endeavors to live with technology.  A small figure, obsessed with the idea of making clouds, labours in vain with huge technical constructions.  Resigning at last, he goes on to manufacture -as a substitute -flying nuts and bolts.  The film, for all its charm, is much too long at over 16 minutes.  It almost seems as though a 15 minute limit would offer all-round advantages, for the phenomenon of the overly long film presented itself in almost every programme.

31-39.  Wow, Women of the World (Faith Hubley; Hubley Studio, New York). Made in honor of International Woman's Year, this film depicts the development of the relations between man and woman and attempts to open up a way to new understand between the sexes.

40-42. Da Da Da (Peter Hudecki: Sheridan College, Ontario).  A 95-second film, the first by this artist.

43-45. The Wild Man (Giuseppe Lagana: Corona Cinematografica, Roma).  writer of children's books makes skillful use of stylistic elements borrowed from Art Deco.  A bogey man steals a child and gets himself into no end of difficulties as a result.  The 11 minute film was made with movable, cut-out figures.

46-52. Amateurs Night (Thalma Goldman: Thalma Goldman, London).  Thalma Goldman, a young Israeli, studied animation in London for two years and now presents her third film.  On an "amateurs night", a number of amateurs do a strip-tease on the stage.  The film shows not only the performers themselves, but also the reactions of an enthusiastic audience that is really "with it."

53-54.  Butterfly Ball (Lee Mishkin: Halas & Batchelor, London).  In this children's film the frog invites all the animals in the wood to a big ball.  Lee Mishkin, veteran of "Popeye", "Magoo" and the "Pink Panther", deploys all his tricks in this bright mixture of Tiffany glass and Hollywood.

56-58. Bigger is Better (Derek Phillips: Derek Phillips, Hounslow).  Cut-out shapes and moving drawings are here used to depict the transition from the individual to mass society and the consequences it entails.

55. One (Paul & Gaetan Brizzi: Paul & Gaetan Brizzi, Paris).  This first film by two graduates of the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs in Paris was made possible by a grant of the Service des Arts Graphiques of the ORTF.  It tells the story of a last survivor of a civilization and the nightmarish creature that pursues him.

59.  The Miner's Rose (Jiri Brdecka: Kratky Film, Prague).  Twenty-five years on, still one of the best: Jiri Brdecka.  His 8-minute film is a miner who doesn't go back to his fiancee after the night shift.

60-61.  Closed Mondays (Will Vinton: Will Vinton & Bob Gardiner Prod, Washington).  Expressive plasticine figures are modified from frame to frame.  The hero happens to find his way into a museum on a Monday, which is closing day, and discovers that works or art live lives of their own.  Is it really only a step from the dream to reality?